Jia Home Inspection

FROM JIA(家) TO HOME

目 录

1.室外和屋頂           2.结构                3.电气           4. 供暖系统                  5.制冷与热泵系统    

 6.阁楼                             7.给排水        8.室内

 

 附錄:房屋保养指南

 

1.室外

1.1 烟囱

1.1.1烟囱中,应经常检查是否有松动、老化的砖或砖缝抹灰;

1.1.2烟囱顶盖是否有锈蚀;

1.1.3底部泛水是否有开裂、漏水;

1.1.4烟囱外部的白色粉状化表明内部有潮汽,应进一步观察;

1.1.5应检查金属烟囱是否有锈蚀、丢失雨帽或固定夹子是否松动。

 

1.2屋顶

1.2.1斜屋面

检查有无损坏、松动或丢失屋面瓦;

特别留意一些变色区域, 如经常有人走动,或雨水由高屋面到低屋面的水落管冲到的区域等;

位于下列部分地区的泛水应特别留意:天窗、下水排气竖管、天沟等;

应砍掉刮风中可能触及屋面的过长树枝;

固定在屋面或烟囱上的卫星天线、室外电视天线、电缆线应固定牢固。

1.2.2平屋面

应留意屋面防水材料有无起鼓、开裂等,其它同斜屋面。

1.2.3雨水檐沟及排水管

检查是否有堵塞、锈蚀洞漏水,固定等;

雨水管的接缝是否错开(如有堵塞、积水等会造成接缝处错位)。

1.2.4屋檐

检查屋檐面板及底板是否有松动、脱落、锈蚀及发霉。

1.3外墙

1.3.1砌体墙:砖及抹灰是否有老化、松动、脱落

1.3.2抹墙:墙面是否有裂缝、脱离

1.3.3木墙:墙面是否有腐蚀、松动或板条损坏、开胶;墙表面漆面有剥离,泛泡形状出现,可能是由于内部潮汽排出所致,要请专业人员检查、修理。

1.3.4金属或合成板条墙:检查有无松动或部件丢失、有无沉降,藤类植物有时会损坏墙表面,遮挡门窗,侵入落水管、檐沟等,最好在冬季无叶季节检查、修剪。

1.3.5暴露的基础墙:检查有无老化的砖、砌块及抹灰,是否有沉降裂缝。

1.3.6室外地面:与房子有直接接触的室外地面应在房子周围6英呎范围内保持至少10%的坡度由房子坡向外侧,下沉或采光天井处应经常检查清理。

 

1.4门和窗

1.4.1密封胶和密封条要经常检查;

1.4.2损坏或松动的窗扇要及时修理或更换;

1.4.3检查外饰面(油漆或涂料)是否有风化、开裂或锈蚀;

1.4.4窗井或天窗应经常清理。

1.5拱门及平台

1.5.1木质材料应检查有无腐蚀及虫蚀;

1.5.2按要求刷漆或涂料;

1.5.3检查台阶、楼梯及栏杆扶手是否固定牢固。

1.6车库

1.6.1检查车库屋顶有无撕裂或开裂;

1.6.2检查车库结构有无偏移或倾斜的迹象;

1.6.3木质材料应检查有无腐蚀及虫蚀;

1.6.4按要求刷油漆和涂料;

1.6.5自动车库门应每月检查一次,尤其是自动反向运动系统;

1.6.6地面下水沟及井应及时清理。

1.7车道及人行道

1.7.1检查有无裂逢或老化;

1.7.2雨水排放不当,会造成积水从而引起车道或人行道的不均匀沉降,应及时整修。

1.8挡土墙及围墙

1.8.1木质挡土墙及围墙应检查有无开裂或虫蚀,按要求刷油漆或涂料;

1.8.2检查挡土墙有无偏移或倾斜。

1.9树木、灌木和藤类植物

1.9.1危及房子的树枝应及时砍掉;

1.9.2干枯的树枝要及时清除;

1.9.3藤类植物不要爬到木饰面的背后。

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2.结构

2.1 基础墙

2.1.1 检查有无老化、潮湿和偏移的迹象;

2.1.2 墙体的裂缝或坑洞要及时堵塞;

2.1.3 及时填塞裂缝或坑洞可有效地观察有无继续的沉降或偏移发生。

2.2 木结构支撑

2.2.1 对地下室内暴露的木结构支撑,应检查有无腐蚀及虫蚀的迹象;

2.2.2 木质老化会造成结构部分下变形,应及时发现、整修;

2.3 墙面和顶棚表面的裂缝

2.3.1 有时墙面和顶棚表面的裂缝是较大变形的迹象,应跟踪观察;

2.3.2 由正常的沉降或收缩引起的小裂缝是正常现象。

2.4 门框

2.4.1 检查门框是否保持方整、平直;

2.4.2 如果在六个月内,门框有较大变形,预示着有墙体或地板的结构问题,应及时请专业人员检查、维修。

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3.电气

3.1 主电盘

3.1.1 每年应检查主电盘有无腐蚀或潮汽侵入的迹象;

3.1.2 检查所有闸刀或开关状况,有无卡壳现象;

3.1.3 所有保险丝应固定牢固;

3.1.4 若是电盘烫手或有烧焦的气味,应尽快请专业人员检查;

3.1.5 烧焦的导线预示着连接松动或不完全,应尽快请专业人员检查修理;

3.1.6 所有回路应有标签标明;

3.1.7 每月检查接地面系统是否运行正常;

3.1.8 主电盘周围三英呎范围内应空置,不要存放任何物品。

3.2 室内线路

3.2.1 地下室内裸露的导线连接若有松动或脱落,应及时发现并请专业人员修理;

3.2.2 应更换所有破损的导线、延长线、插座和电器电源线;

3.2.3 及时固定好松动的插座及开关;

3.2.4 每月测试GFC1插座。

3.3 室外线路

3.3.1 检查室外架空线有无松驰、坠落或破损;

3.3.2 所有室外插座应采用带封盖的室外专用插座;

3.3.3 最好将所有室外插座都换成带GFC1功能的插座。

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4. 供暖系统

4.1 强制通风系统

4.1.1 传统的电子式的空气过滤网应每月检查清理一次,必要时及时更换;

4.1.2 严格按照厂家说明来操作;

4.1.3 确保清理完后按正确方向接表;

4.1.4 若通风噪音过大,应请专业人员检查;

4.1.5 每月检查、调整加湿系统的水位,每年更换式加湿系统的垫子;

4.1.6 确认加湿系统的供水阀门在夏季处于关闭状况,取暖季节处于开启状态;

4.1.7 对带有热泵或空调功能的系统,制冷季节应关掉加湿管的风挡门。

4.2 热系统

4.2.1 每年检查取暖器和热交换齐是否有漏水现象(特别是阀门处);

4.2.2 每年使用前应吹掉取暖器上的灰尘;

4.2.3 每取暖季内为循环泵加润滑油二次;

4.2.4 蒸发器每年排空一次。

4.3 电暖系统

4.3.1 每年请专业人员检查电锅炉和沸腾炉,确保所有不见运转正常,没有连接松动或烧坏现象

4.3.2 对有些系统,户主可自行检查电回路的保险丝;

4.3.3 地下室电暖器系统,应检查加热部分以上是否有足够的净空,损坏的加热器应及时修理或更换。

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5.制冷与热泵系统

5.1 若需要,最好请专业人员每年检修一次;

5.2 多数系统要求在使用前24小时要接通电源;

5.3 使用期间,要经常留意位于通风管上的冷凝水管是否有漏水现象;

5.4 室外要保持水平,若有局部沉降或升高,请专业人员预以调整;

5.5 检查冷冻液管有无泄漏,其保温隔热层有无松动、脱落或破损;

5.6 检查室外机有无树叶、树枝等植物类吹入,及时清理;

5.7 多数厂家建议冬季期间不要封盖室外机,利于防锈;

5.8 保持室外盘管清洁;

5.9 若风扇噪音过大,可能是由于轴心偏离原因;

5.10 冬季时应将容式空调器移走。

 

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6.阁楼

6.1 每年检查一次阁楼内的屋面板内侧有无水渍;

 

6.2 检查有无腐蚀、发霉和霉菌现象,这些均表明阁楼内有湿现象;

6.3 检查保温层是否潮湿;

6.4 大风季节阁楼的散状保温层会被檐顶底板进风洞进入的风吹得不再均匀,有时会堵塞风洞,及时清理;

6.5 检查空白处的卧式灯具外壳不会被保温层覆盖;

6.6 检查阁楼进风、出风口有无堵塞现象,保证气流畅通(有时鸟会在此筑巢);

6.7 检查有无动物进入、筑巢迹象(松鼠等);

6.8 检查支撑屋面板的斜梁和连接斜梁的水平支撑有无腐蚀、变形现象。

6.9 注意:行走要小心,避免踏空或踩到电线电缆;此外,因踩踏而压实的散状保温材料的保温性能会大大降低,应尽量减少阁楼内的走动。

 

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7.给排水

7.1 供水系统

7.1.1 每年检查一次供水管,是否有饱冒滴漏现象;

7.1.2 冬季时注意暴露在室外的部分有无冻裂现象;

7.1.3 检查供水主阀门是否运行正常,保证紧急情况时能及时切断进水;

7.1.4 有滴漏现象的阀门应及时更换;

7.1.5 自备井系统应配备半自动设施,并定期检测水质是否符合要求。

7.2 排水系统

7.2.1 检查排水管的可见部分是否有滴漏现象;

7.2.2 需要时,清理地下室底板和室外的集水、排水坑;

7.2.3 如有化粪池,应每年检查清理一次。

7.3 供排水系统

7.3.1 检查坐便器固定是否牢固;

7.3.2 检查卫生间内的密封胶条是否开胶、脱落,并及时更新、修补;

7.3.3 每年夏季以前检查集水坑内的水泵是否运行正常。

7.4 热水加热器

7.4.1 现代加热器的泄压阀上都有一个测试柄,每三个月需测试一次该装置是否运转正常,确保不被卡住;

 

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8.室内

 

 

 

 

8.1 检查内墙和顶棚表面有无裂缝,如有,跟踪观察裂缝密度和长度有无增加,便于查明原因;

8.2 检查内墙和顶棚表面有无起鼓现象;

8.3 检查死角处的墙面及顶棚有无发霉现象,防止室内过潮;

8.4 仔细检查墙面及顶棚有无水渍,并查明来源。

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房屋保养指南

 春季(3月-5月)

检查屋顶:检查有无松动脱落的屋面材料,及时修理破损处。如果能进入屋面下(阁楼),在下大雨时检查有无漏水处或者寻找是否有发霉变黑现象。

  清理屋檐排水沟。树叶等会阻碍排水并加快排水沟等构件的锈蚀并损坏屋顶。要确保雨水从落水管排出并远离房屋基础。

 检查各处给水开关,入户,室外,到卫生间,厨房等。各处开关打开关闭几次查有无泄漏。

 检查冲水马桶。重点查水箱下和马桶地面的结合处。

 检查水槽,浴盆,淋浴等处的勾缝和密封。及时修理更换破损处。

 

  检查热水器是否泄漏并冲洗水箱。

 根据使用手册检查并例行保养烘干机,炉头,洗碗机,冰箱,滤水装置,厨房小电器,排气扇等。

清理抽油烟机里侧并更换滤网。

 检查,根据需要更换烟感和一氧化碳探测器的电池。

 

 

夏季(6月-8月)
 
 

 雨后检查半地下室有无积水,并检查卫生问,厨房,和洗衣房地板和梁有无受到水侵害的地方。

 对房屋进行冬天过后的全面检查。将需要修理更换的地方一一记下并逐条落实。

 检查门窗是否工作正常。修理或更换纱窗和密封条。检查门窗周围的密封胶,必要时重新上胶。上合页润滑剂并拧紧松动的螺丝。

  清理游泳池,水塘,或喷泉。

 修理车道,步行道和便道的路面裂缝。

检查阁楼或半地下室通风口保护网,及时修理或更换。

清理烘干机通风管道(去除衣物纤维灰尘等形成的絮状物)。

 修理或更换院门,院墙篱笆等。

室内重新油漆的好季节。

 清理室外平台、露台、阳台及室外家具。必要时重新刷漆。

 

 

 

 

 
秋 季(9月-11月) 
  
如果能上屋顶或请人,检查屋顶瓦片有无破损。检查任何屋顶突出物,看有无锈蚀,开缝或其他损坏。

检查外墙。看有无开裂,油漆脱落或其他问题。

剪除靠屋顶太近的树枝。可以防止松鼠等小动物进入。

检查阁楼的通风装置。如果阁楼可以进去,检查确保保温棉不要堵住通风口,检查有无电线破损,漏水,松动的管道等问题。清理抽油烟机里侧或更换滤网。

检查热水器是否泄漏并冲洗水箱。根据使用手册检查TPR开关。

检查各处给水开关,入户,室外,到卫生间,厨房等。各处开关打开关闭几次查有无泄漏。

检查水槽,浴盆,淋浴等处的勾缝和密封。及时修理更换破损处。

 

 

 冬 季 (12月-2月)

 在第一次点火前检查并清理壁炉和烟囱。必要时请专业人员来做。

检查暖炉滤网。若需要考虑更换。

检查所有的通风口,及时修理有问题的地方并清除阻碍气流的任何残碎品。

清理烘干机通风管道(去除衣物纤维灰尘等形成的絮状物)。

 根据使用手册检查并例行保养烘干机,炉头,洗碗机,冰箱,滤水装置,厨房小电器,排气扇等。

清理抽油烟机里侧并更换滤网。

 断开车库门开门器,给各构件上油。车库门弹簧的调试应聘请专业人员。

 

 

 

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Home Maintenance Tips and Tricks

January

  • Check for leaks at valve where water enters the house, at outdoor faucets and at any valves to toilet, bathroom or kitchen sink, bar, etc. Turn each off and on several times to check for leaks.
  • Check operation of toilet. Check for leaks in the area between the tank and bowl and around the base.
  • Inspect grout and caulk around sinks, tubs and showers. Repair or replace damaged areas
  • Remove accumulated mineral deposits from shower heads by soaking them in withwhite vinegar. Warning: Wear Goggles!!!!

February

  • Inspect roof from the ground (Going onto the roof can be dangerous), look for loose, missing or damaged roofing materials. Repair any damage. If you have access to the underside of 'the roof', check during a heavy rain for leaks.
  • Clean condenser coils or fins beneath or behind the refrigerator according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Make certain air flow around the appliance is adequate
  • Inspect all vents, repair as needed and remove any debris blocking air flow.

March

  • Inspect and service clothes dryer, cook top or stove, dishwasher, refrigerator, water filter, countertop appliances, etc. according to manufacturers’ recommendations.
  • Clean underside of range hood and Clean or replace filters.
  • Replace batteries on smoke and Carbon Monoxide detectors. Do this when you set the clock ahead to daylight-saving time.
  • Inspect water heater for leaks and flush tank. Test temperature and pressure relief valve according to the manufacturer's instructions

April

 

  •  Clean rain gutters. Leaves and other debris will clog up drainage and might promote rusting and roof damage. Make sure that water flowing from downspouts is draining away from the foundation.
  • Inspect crawl space after rain for accumulation of water, as well as for indications of water damage on the sub floor and joists beneath bathrooms, kitchen and laundry.
  • Inspect home from bottom to top, looking for damage that occurred over the winter. Prepare a “to do” list of needed repairs.
  • Do spring cleanup. Wash walls and windows, clean carpeting, upholstery and window coverings.
  • Check doors and windows for proper operation. Lubricate hinges and tighten loose hinge screws. Apply clear wood floor wax to door edges that rub.

May

  • Check furnace filter. Clean or replace if necessary. Do furnace or central air-conditioning maintenance recommended by the unit’s manufacturer.
  • Clean and prepare swimming pool, pond or fountain.
  • Repair cracks in driveways, walkways and sidewalks.
  • Check that vent screens to attic or crawl space are not damaged. Repair or replace as needed. 

June

 

  • Clean clothes dryer vent from the dryer drum to where the air is vented outdoors.
  • Repair or replace damaged window screens and weather-stripping. Caulk open joints, particularly around windows and doors.
  • Repair or replace gates, fence posts, etc.
  • Clean decks, patio, balconies, fences and patio furniture. Refinish if needed.

July

  • Carefully climb on the roof (If it is safe enough to walk on) and inspect it or have a qualified roofer do it for you. Look for damage to shakes, shingles or tiles. Inspect anything that protrudes through the roof for rust, open seams or other damage. Be careful.
  • Check exterior walls for cracks, peeling paint or other damage.
  • Trim branches around the roof line to keep squirrels and other pesky animals off the roof.
  • Check operation of attic fans and turbine vents. If attic space is accessible, make certain that attic insulation is not blocking air flow through vents. While in the attic, check for worn electrical wiring, water damage, loose ducts, etc

August

  • Clean underside of range hood and clean or replace filters.
  • Clean condenser coils or fins beneath or behind refrigerator according to the manufacturer’s instructions.  Check to be certain there is adequate air flow around the appliance.

 

September

 

  • Inspect water heater for leaks and flush tank. Test temperature and pressure relief (TPR) valve according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
  • Paint the inside of your house if needed.
  • Check for leaks at valve where water enters the house, at outdoor faucets and at any valves to toilet, bathroom or kitchen sink, bar, etc. Turn each off and on several times to check for leaks.
  • Inspect grout around sinks, tubs and showers. Repair or replace damaged areas.

October

 

  • Clean rain gutters. Leaves and other debris will hamper drainage and might promote rusting and roof damage. Make sure that water flowing from downspouts is draining away from the foundation.
  • Inspect and clean the fireplace and flue before lighting your first fire. Hire a professional if needed.
  • Check furnace filter. Clean or replace if necessary.

November

 

  • Replace batteries of smoke, heat and gas detectors. Do this when you set the clock back to standard time.
  • Inspect crawl space after rain for water accumulation or excessive moisture. Do not block vents to the crawl space in winter.
  • Shut off water to washing machine and remove water supply hoses. Check washers. Replace hoses that are damaged, including where fittings are badly corroded.

Every Month

  •  Test and inspect smoke, and Carbon Monoxide detectors.
  • Check to be certain nothing flammable is near a source of flame, such as a water heater Pilot light, gas range, furnace, etc
  • Practice family fire-escape plan and review earthquake preparedness.
  • Inspect electrical cords for damageRepair or replace if needed.
  • Check the operation of all electrical circuit breakers by turning each off and on. Do the same with ground fault Circuit interrupters (GFCI), usually found in bathroom, kitchen, garage and outdoor outlets. Replace those not working properly.
  • Clean garbage disposal by grinding up two trays of ice cubes made from a mixture of 1 cup white vinegar to 1 gallon of water. (Be certain to use the disposer cap when grinding.) For a pleasant odor follow the cleaning by grinding a lemon

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December

 

  • Clean lint from clothes dryer vent, from the dryer drum to where the air is vented outdoors.
  • Service clothes dryer, cook top or stove, dishwasher, countertop appliances, exhaust fans, etc. according to the manufacturers’ recommendations.
  • Clean underside of range hood and clean or replace filters.
  • Disconnect the garage door opener to lubricate hardware. Springs on overhead doors should be adjusted by a qualified service technician

 

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